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The Kallanish Glossary aims to be a useful resource for complex industry specific terminology. We are constantly adding to our glossary, so if you have a suggestion or amendment please do get in touch.
Electrical Steel

Electrical steel is specialty steel tailored to produce certain magnetic properties, such as high permeability. The material is usually manufactured in the form of cold-rolled strips less than 2 mm thick. These strips are called laminations when stacked together to form a core.

Electric Arc Furnace

A heat-treatment furnace that uses electric current to control the temperature of a metal. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite electrodes to the metal bath. Furnaces may be either an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe

Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are passed through forming rolls and welded.


Electropolishing is an electrochemical removal process used on stainless steel fittings that selectively removes a thin layer of metal, including surface flaws and imbedded impurities, in order to smooth, brighten and clean the interior surface of the metal. Electropolishing is a required surface treatment process for all ultra high-purity components used in the gas distribution systems of semiconductor manufacturers worldwide and many sterile water distribution systems of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

Energy Optimising Furnace

The energy optimising furnace (EOF) burns coal, enhanced by oxygen injection, to generate the thermal energy needed to preheat and then melt a mixture of scrap and pig iron, or other steelmaking raw materials, in an enclosed hearth. It is a vertical process with the hearth at the base, and chambers above in which scrap etc is preheated by off-gases before descending into the melting zone and steel is tapped off at the bottom of the vessel. The EOF is recognised as a way of producing good quality steel with relatively low investment and operating costs.


Extrusion is the method of producing lengths of steel to a particular shape by forcing the metal through a die cut to the cross-sectional shape required. The method is used to produce a wide range of shapes, from rounds, squares, “L” shapes, “T” shapes and tube, through to complex sections that can be difficult to make by any other method. The method is also widely used for non-ferrous metals, particularly aluminium, as well as plastics.

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