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The Kallanish Glossary aims to be a useful resource for complex industry specific terminology. We are constantly adding to our glossary, so if you have a suggestion or amendment please do get in touch.

A rebar, or reinforcing bar, is a common steel bar that is used in reinforced concrete and masonry in order to strengthen and hold the concrete in its structure. 

Reducing Agent

Carbon or hydrogen used to remove oxygen from iron ore to produce iron and steel.

Reheat Furnace

Reheat furnaces are used to ensure that partly worked steel, which has been allowed to cool, arrives at its next processing stage at the optimum temperature. The furnace heats metal ingots, billets and blooms in order to bring them to the temperature required for hot-working. 

Re-Rollable Scrap

Re-rollable scrap is a steel scrap metal that is already in such a condition that it is suitable for another application through rolling it into a saleable product. This differs from the more common processes seen in scrap recycling where the metal undergoes melting, casting and rolling. Re-rolling is more commonly used in emerging economies rather than in industrialised countries. 


Residuals are elements such as copper and tin, which are usually introduced into the steelmaking process in the form of unsorted or contaminated scrap. This can sometimes, however, impair the physical and mechanical properties of steel. Residuals are key concerns regarding the mini-mills’ recent entry into the flat-rolled market. High residuals can leave sheet steel too brittle for customer use causing problems in the mill.

Reversing Mill

A reversing mill is used to reduce material to gauge. The steel enters the rolling mill from one side, passes through the other side and then comes back through the mill again. Normally it will go left to right through the mill a number of times being rolled a little thinner each time it goes through.

Rimmed Steel

This type of steel is produced during ingot casting, with the resulting ingot having a very pure surface layer, or rim. This feature is due to the absence or near absence of a deoxidising agent during steel production, which allows carbon monoxide to be formed from the oxygen and carbon in the melt. As this gas migrates to the surface, other elements (eg.carbon, phosphorus and sulphur) gravitate towards the centre of the ingot to leave a much purer layer or rim on the outside. After hot rolling this steel has a good surface finish which is low in carbon.

Rolling Mill

A machine which converts semi-finished steel (semis) into finished steel products by passing them through sets of rotating cylinders which squeeze the steel into the desired shape. Rolled steel products include bar, rod, plate, beams, coil etc.

Roughing Mill

Roughing mills are rolling mills which convert steel ingots into blooms, billets or slabs. The process enables the steel to go back-and-forth through the mill (multiple passes) until the desired dimensions are achieved.

Roughing Stand

Two heavy rolls that press the steel plate to reduce its thickness before hot rolling.

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