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The Kallanish Glossary aims to be a useful resource for complex industry specific terminology. We are constantly adding to our glossary, so if you have a suggestion or amendment please do get in touch.
Crude Steel

Crude steel is iron that has been decarburized to remove part of the carbon in the molten metal but that has not yet been refined into a definite steel grade.


Cut-To-Length in the process where sections of flat-rolled steel is cut into a particular or desired length or shape. Such product that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stacked.


Deformed bar, which is the most common form of reinforcing bar.


The process used to smooth the sharp, jagged edges of a cut piece of steel.


Decarburisation is the loss of carbon at the surface of steel. It is caused by exposure of the surface to oxidising conditions at high temperature

Deep Drawing Steel

This is a low carbon steel strip which has a microstructure to enable it to be extensively pressed or drawn without tearing or failure.


Descaling is the process of removing scale from the surface of steel. This scale forms most readily when the steel is hot and blended with oxygen and iron. Common methods are to either crack the scale by use of roughened rolls and remove by a forceful water spray or to throw salt or wet sand on the steel just previous to its passage through the rolls.

Direct Reduced Iron

Direct reduced iron is a processed iron ore that is iron-rich enough to be used as a scrap substitute in electric furnace steelmaking. The impurities in the crushed iron ore are driven off through the use of massive amounts of natural gas.


This a process whereby the shape and/or dimensions of rolled steel sheet or long product, such as bar, wire or tube, are altered. In the case of steel sheet, drawing takes place in a press to change the sheet from a flat to a shaped profile. Drawing is generally, but not exclusively, a cold working technique as it is usually conducted at room temperature. 

Drawn-Over-Mandrel Tube

A procedure for producing specialty tubing using a drawbench to pull tubing through a die and over a mandrel, giving excellent control over the inside diameter and wall thickness. Advantages of this technique are its inside and outside surface quality and gauge tolerance. 

Dry Metric Tonne Unit

This is the internationally accepted unit of measure for iron ore pricing. A dry metric tonne unit is 1% of iron (Fe) contained in a tonne of ore, excluding moisture. The price per tonne of a consignment of iron ore is calculated by multiplying the cents/dmtu price by the percent Fe content of the ore in that shipment. Iron ore contract prices are quoted in US$ cents.


Duplex is a category of stainless steel with high amounts of chromium and moderate nickel content. Duplex stainless steels provide high resistance to stress corrosion cracking (formation of cracks caused by a combination of corrosion and stress) and are suitable for heat exchangers, desalination plants, and marine applications.

Electrical Steel

Electrical steel is specialty steel tailored to produce certain magnetic properties, such as high permeability. The material is usually manufactured in the form of cold-rolled strips less than 2 mm thick. These strips are called laminations when stacked together to form a core.

Electric Arc Furnace

A heat-treatment furnace that uses electric current to control the temperature of a metal. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite electrodes to the metal bath. Furnaces may be either an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe

Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are passed through forming rolls and welded.

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